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Solar Panels are made up of multiple Solar Cells. These Cells are made from Silicon, which is a semiconductor, the Silicon is sandwiched between Conductive layers. 

Silicon atoms are connected together by 4 strong bonding points, these keep the electrons in place meaning no current can flow. 

Solar Cells use two different layers of Silicon, an N-type and a P-type, the N-type has extra electrons, whereas the P-type has extra spaces or holes for electrons. Where the two types meet, this is called the P/N Junction where electrons can flow across, this creates a positive charge on one side and a negative charge on the other. 

Photons which can be emitted from The Sun can stroke a Silicon cell, and with enough energy it can knock an electron from its bond leaving a hole. The negatively charged Electron and positively charge hole are now free to move around. However, because of the electric field at the P/N Junction they can only go one way, the Electron is drawn the the N side, whilst the hole is drawn to the P side. 

The flowing Electrons are collected by thin metal fingers at the top of the Cell. From there they flow through an electric circuit returning to the thin aluminium sheet on the back. 

Each Silicon Cell only produces half a Volt, so they are strung together in modules to create more of an output. 

Electrons is the only moving part on a Solar Panel, and each Electrons goes back to where it came from 


With over 18 Years experience in Design, Installation & Testing in the Domestic, Commercial and Industrial Sectors. 

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